Soft scale â Soft scale bugs on citrus also form a protective coating via wax secretion, but it is not the hardened shell that the armored scale â¦ In Texas, the Florida wax scale has two fairly distinct generations per year (eggs hatching in late April through May and again in late July through August), although some eggs can hatch during other months. Fig. Florida Wax Scales – Biology and Management (PowerPoint presentation converted to PDF), Bastiaan M. Drees, Professor, Extension Entomologist, Texas AgriLife Extension, James Reinert, Professor of Entomology, Faculty and Regents Fellow, Texas AgriLife Research, Michael Williams, Chair, Department of Entomology/Plant Pathology, Auburn University. When a new flush of growth occurs on the host plant, the more mature scales will often migrate to the new growth at the top of the plant. There are many scale insect species that infest ornamental landscape plants. DOWNLOAD THIS PUBLICATION IN PDF: Florida Wax Scales: Control Measures in Texas for Hollies – L-5479, PowerPoint program with video clips available (for-sale-only): Florida Wax Scale Biology and Impact– SP-246, Florida Wax Scales: A Major Pest of Hollies and Other Landscape Shrubs and Trees – EEE-00023, Applying Systemic Soil and Foliar Spray Insecticides to Control Florida Wax Scale on Hollies – EEE-00024. There are systemic insecticides available that can be used to control scale. Honeydew also attracts other insects including bees, wasps, hornets and ants (Hymenoptera). Eggs from beneath an adult female wax scale. Many other species of wax scales occur in the state including the larger barnacle scale, C. cirripediformis Comstock, that grows to almost 1/4-inch in diameter (Drees and Jackman 1998). Florida wax scales look like waxy, white domes about the size of a nail head and occur on a wide variety of plants. Large amounts of a sticky, sugary liquid, called honeydew, is secreted by these scale insects and is colonized by a fungus called sooty mold, and causes infested plant parts to turn black and become unsightly. Web Site Maintenance: Neal Lee, Soil, Water, and Forage Testing Laboratory, Texas Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Florida Wax Scales: A Major Pest of Hollies and Other Landscape Shrubs and Trees, Applying Systemic Soil and Foliar Spray Insecticides to Control Florida Wax Scale on Hollies, Florida Wax Scales – Biology and Management, “Near-organic” and “Inorganic” Insecticides, Equal Opportunity for Educational Programs Statement. Credits: Lyle Buss, University of Florida Biology and Behavior Life cycles of the various scale species differ somewhat, but a generalized life cycle is as follows. Tea scale is the most serious insect pest of flowering camellias. The Soft Scale Insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccidea) in Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas Vol. In Texas, the authors have observed infestations on other plants including elephant ear, golden Euonymus, honeysuckle, pomegranate, winged elm and Virginia creeper. No. ... may need to perform a systemic root drench with a product like Dominion 2L for long term control up to one year with one treatment. The Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, is one of the most commonly encountered soft scales throughout the southern United States, where it is a serious pest of citrus and several ornamental plants, like holly. Cottonycushion Scale. The actual number of tropical foliage plants attacked and seriously damaged by scales is too numerous to list in this presentation. Several foliar sprays applied in 7 to 10 day intervals, or as directed on the productâs label, may be necessary to provide protection of new foliage through the period of egg hatch, particularly when using insecticide products with little or no residual activity such as insecticidal soap or horticultural oil. Tea scale also attacks hollies, citrus and the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) as well as a few other plants. Gimpel et al. Adult female tea scales are about 1/10 inch long and are covered with a hard brown cover. Cottony cushion scale is frequently found on pittosporum, citrus and nandina, whereas Florida wax scale is common on crape myrtle, gardenia, â¦ When a soft body is beneatha cover, the plant is likely to have live armored scales. The wax scales are globular in shape and coated with a heavy layer of wet-looking white, beige to pinkish or gray wax. Gulf Publ. Another New Scale . The Florida red scale, here infesting English ivy, is another common and serious pest. Fig 2. Coffee scale is a major agricultural pest in coffee crops. Scale insects also secrete a sticky liquid called honeydew, which promotes the fungal disease black sooty mold. Severe infestations may result in leaf discoloration, shoot or branch dieback and occasionally death of the host plant. Entomol. (ép,j« +/ÙÅû?0HN!BUÔ.ÉÀÉu Hs1È@êy#'CïBë)d$Jcp3h ['ÅÀÉ+RÄ@,ËÀ)Ãåß0 À«ü endstream endobj 51 0 obj <> endobj 52 0 obj <> endobj 53 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[0 0 612 792]/Type/Page>> endobj 54 0 obj <>stream Viewed from the top, they are rectangular, oval or lobed at the base. Male forms have not been observed in this species. 1998. Native to Africa. The Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, is one of the most commonly encountered soft scales throughout the southern United States, where it is a serious pest of citrus and several ornamental plants, like holly. in Florida. However, some of the scales colonize the underside of leaves, on twigs and branches, where they are more protected. One of the best-known in this family is Coccus viridis, also known as coffee scale or green scale. Three parasitic wasp species (Coccophagus lycimnia, Scutellista cynea and Metaphycus eruptor) have been reported for Florida wax scales in some parts of the U. S. (Hamon & Williams 1984).Â However, no natural enemies (pathogens, parasites, predators) have been observed to provide biological control of Florida wax scales in Texas. Stimmel, J. F. 1998. Florida wax scales have been reported infesting a wide range of host plants, including shrubs, trees and several herbaceous plant species. Soil-applied systemic insecticide products, such as those containing imidacloprid (e.g. The eggs are ovoid, pale purple, and resemble pollen when shaken onto a â¦ Figure 3: Hemispherical scale on coontie. Indian wax scale insects, Ceroplastes ceriferus, are tiny, brownish-purple females with microscopic legs and a thick covering of sticky, white wax.Wax and all, they are about 1 / 4 inch long. Figure 6: Aphids feeding on a plant stem. Photo: H. Glenn, UF/IFAS. Wax scale females feed and develop through three immature stages (first, second and third instars) before becoming adults, producing eggs and dying. (Homoptera: Coccidae). Unlike the hard scales, Florida wax scale nymphs will often move from one location to another. Found mostly on shrubs in the North as opposed to tree infestations in the South, Indian wax scale looks like someone stuck their white chewing gum in the crouch of the plantâs stems. Caribbean Black Scale. B. and M. L. Williams. If you remove the âgumâ the underside of the scale is pink or red. Florida Red Scale. FDOACS. Systemic insecticides generally do not eliminate all scales located on branches or twigs, so the addition of foliar treatments may be necessary to eliminate the whole population. Florida wax scale is widely distributed from Maryland to Florida, including the Caribbean archi-pelago, and from Missouri to California. If hollies are selected for planting, inspect plants thoroughly to avoid purchasing already-infested plants. The authors are grateful for reviews of earlier versions of this manuscript by Carlos Bogran and Scott Ludwig. Texas A&M University - Department of Entomology â¢ 2475 TAMU â¢ College Station, TX 77843-2475 University of Florida, IFAS. Check plants for live scale infestations. The Japanese wax scale is often found on Podocarpus, but also occurs on other foliage plants. Visually inspect plants regularly for early signs of infestation. They are easier to see due to their build up of natural coating around them, which makes them harder to treat. Wait 24 to 36 hours to make sure the â¦ Numerous species of scale insects, typically classified as soft or armored, can attack a broad array of shrubs. For the smaller, âhard scaleâ, click HERE. Adult and early star-like immature stages. It has been a pest of Ixoraspp. The adult female is covered with a thick layer of soft wax, about 2 to 4 mm in length and 1 to 3.5 mm in width. Wax scales injure plants by removing large quantities of plant sap. They overwinter predominantly as newly mature females. Eggs generally hatch in 1 to 3 weeks. Body convex, circular or irregular in outline, and covered with thick white or pinkish white wax; normally with an anteriorly projecting horn---Indian wax scale (Figure 5) 5. a. United States: Florida. to 4 mm (~0.1 to 0.2 inch) in length--Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis) (Figure 4) b. 2). The adult female of the Florida wax scale grows to about 3 mm (1/8-inch). Control is difficult on heavily infested plants, in part, because proper timing and thorough coverage using insecticide treatments are needed to achieve success. White wax scale. Use all neem oil products by following the instructions since, as an oil, there is greater risk oâ¦ 1984. Chaff Scale. Find related pest control products, articles and questions on Florida Wax Scale Ask A Pro: 866-581-7378 Mon-Fri 9am-5pm ET Live Chat Contact Us Fast Free Shipping On Your Entire Order * Management In Texas, you can control Florida wax scale through cultural and chemical methods. Even after the insects are killed, many of the scales and the sooty mold will remain on the plants and continue to disfigure them. When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. Tea scale is a major camellia and holly pest in Florida. Alternative shrubs to hollies in eastern Texas include junipers (except “Blue Point”), Ligustrum, privet, boxwood, pittosporium, bottle brush, sea grapes, oleander, wax myrtle (regular and dwarf). Figure 1. These insecticides contain oil in a form that will mix with water. There are many scale insect species that infest ornamental landscape plants. We are also grateful to Gary Plaia of Katy, Texas for monitoring scale crawler hatches and reporting success in treating infested hollies in southeast Texas. 191. Purple scale. Beginning in late April and again in mid-August, examine leaves on infested plants weekly or bi-weekly for newly settled nymphs that appear small, white and star-like as they begin to exude their wax coating. Underneath the wax cap, the body of the scale is red. Credits: Lyle Biology and Behavior Buss, University of Florida Life cycles of the various scale species differ somewhat, but a generalized life cycle is as follows. Worldwide: Africa, Asia, Australia, Central America, the Caribbean, Mediterranean region, Pacific Islands, and South America. Soft Brown Scale. Established host plants. Fig 3. %PDF-1.6 %âãÏÓ Active wax scale crawlers (two on right) and settled crawler (left). Scale sounds and looks a lot like a plant disease, but the term actually refers to infestation by any one of more than 7,000 species of tiny sap-sucking insects.Scale insects typically adhere to the stems, branches, and sometimes the leaves of plants to feed on sap, and they have a shell-like bump appearance, which sometimes causes them to be mistaken for a fungal or bacterial disease. Agric. Catharine Mannion. Now, foliage of infested plants appears blackened with coatings of sooty mold, a fungus that grows on the sugary honeydew produced by these scale insects. Types of scale on citrus plants in the armored scale family may include Black Parlatoria, Citrus Snow Scale, Florida Red Scale and Purple Scale. We appreciate Chris Fox for providing suggestions of non-host ornamental plant alternatives to hollies. After settling, nymphs insert their thread-like mouthparts into the plant and begin to secrete wax in tufts around the body that give them a star-like appearance. Underneath the wax cap, the body of the scale is red. Hiding under the "scale" covering (sometimes hard; sometimes fuzzy), these insects sit in one spot and suck plant juicesâweakening or even killing the plant. throughout the eastern half of Texas and the southeastern U. S. are becoming infested with the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Homoptera: Coccidae) (Fig 1). When removing individual adult female scales from leaves at certain times of the year, hundreds of eggs will pour out of their body cavities (Fig. Hard to detect and unimpressive-looking, scale insects are an underestimated danger to your landscape plants. Regulatory Hort. Body oval or slightly elongate to oval, 3), hatch from eggs over a period of 2 to 3 weeks and crawl to and settle on leaves, twigs and stems of host plants – thereby spreading the infestation. More and more landscape hedges of hollies (Ilex sp.) The wax rays gradually appear around the body margin. Cir. 11. Whenthe bump itself can be squashed it is likely to be some othertype of scale. Eggs (Fig. Florida Wax Scale. Figure 2: Mealybugs. MeritÂ®, BayerÂ® Tree & Shrub Insect Control) should be applied prior to egg hatch to allow the active ingredient to be translocated from the soil, through the roots and into the leaf tissue. 359 pp. Hammon, A. Scale insects feed on shrubs' sap using their long, piercing mouthparts, causing twig and branch dieback and sometimes killing the plants. Figure 1. hÞb```f``j¼¿@9. Tea scale is a small insect that attaches itself to the leaf and sucks plant juices. How to Treat Scale on Shrubs. Neem oil products work by suffocating the insect. Of course, these other landscape ornamental plants may have other limitations. Click for a hub of Extension resources related to the current COVID-19 situation. hÞbbd``b`Z$+5H° ÎÛ@;Hh2 õí@>($x0012ic`¤ñqéG » endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 79 0 obj <>stream (1974) described in detail the process and shapes of the wax produced by wax scales and C. dectructor produces its wax in a similar way. Citrus Snow Scale. The least-toxic, effective insecticides to control scale are oil sprays. Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. However, none resemble the shape and size of this group of soft scale insect species in shape or size. Wax scales, Ceroplastes spp. photo credit: R. Robert. Viewed from the top, they are rectangular, oval or lobed at the base. When are soft scales most active? Indian Wax Scale on the stem of cherry laurel. After 3-4 days of settlement, the dorsal wax pad appears as a thin, white marking. There are no males. Although extensively distributed world-wide, the fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus), was first discovered in Florida at several nursery and stock dealers in 1994 and 1995. Once the crawlers settle down, they start secreting white wax. hÞ¤VÛnÛ8ý>î>¤¼"PHÒ&-Pw$Ø.øµe[XY In 2013, we added Indian wax scale, white prunicola scale and juniper scale to the monitoring list to better determine crawler periods. Drees, B. M. and J. $yÑþýÎ-)¦i3Î. The eggs are laid beneath the wax coverings, ovisacs, or beneath the adult female (Figure 2). Tropical Research and Education Center. Florida wax scales along leaf veins. Heavy infestations can cause extensive leaf yellowing, premature leaf drop (defoliation), branch dieback, and plant death. A. Jackman. Treatment options include use of soil-applied systemic insecticides and/or foliar sprays with label directions for control of scale insects or soft scale on ornamental landscape plants (See Applying Systemic Soil and Foliar Spray Insecticides to Control Florida Wax Scale on Hollies). On holly, Florida wax scales are easily spotted because most of them colonize the upper leaf surface. 2) are oval and reddish-orange in color, and fill the cavity underneath the bodies of dead or mature adult female scales. Foliar treatments are best applied after the crawler stage hatches from eggs and begins to settle on new foliage. A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects. Horticultural Oil Precautions Test the spray on a leaf or two. Arena .25 G Insecticide produces outstanding curative and preventative white grub control and a large spectrum of insect pests with a single application. Glover Scale (long scale) Fern Scale. 24(2):17-19. The wax scales are globular in shape and coated with a heavy layer of wet-looking white, beige to pinkish or gray wax. Nymphs will often line up on the veins of the upper surface of the leaf (Fig. Insecticidal soap, made from potassium salt of fatty acids, works by penetrating and destroying the outer shell or membrane of the insect causing it to dehydrate and die. Scales attached to branches or twigs may be unaffected. Florida wax scales along leaf veins. Fla. Dept. A contact systemic insecticide such as products containing acephate (OrtheneÂ® Tree, Turf and Ornamental Spray) can provide a longer period of control. Many other species of wâ¦ Description: The adult is approximately 3 mm wide; circular, raised, dirty white to pinkish with a wax cover.The nymphs are smaller and star shaped. This location makes the scales vulnerable to heavy rain and other environmental factors that reduce their ability to survive and are more easily reached with foliar insecticide sprays. Promote plant vigor and health by properly selecting preparing planting sites, and providing optimal watering and fertilization. In Florida, this species has been recorded from many species of holly, elm, crape myrtles, oaks, loblolly pine, deodar cedar, citrus and other hardwoods and softwoods. This insect is widely distributed from Maryland to Florida including the Carribean archipelago, and from Missouri to California. Importance: Severe infestations may result in shoot or branch dieback. However, none resemble the shape and size of this group of soft scale insect species in shape or size. Some species of âbark liceâ (Psocidae) are associated with sooty mold. Figure 4: Florida wax scales along leaf veins. Greg Hodges. Cultural control. In recent years, infestations in the eastern half of Texas have become particularly noticeable. Scale â¦ 4). The goal of insecticide-based efforts should be to prevent new regrowth from becoming infested by crawlers. Carefully follow label directions. Figure 5: Whitefly adult (left) resembling a moth and immature nymphs (right) which resemble scale insects. Also known as waxy scale, this type of scale is known to be âsoft scaleâ. Common Name: Florida Wax Scale (Ceroplastes floridensis). Other species of wax scales include tree dwellers like the cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) or the calico scale (Eulecanium cerasorum). Florida wax scale is highly convex, somewhat angular, and oval. To help control the occasional pest problem such as Aphids or Florida Wax Scale you can use a natural pesticide such as EcoVia with a weekly application for three week at the first sign of scale or sooty mold. and infrequently found on other host plants. Division of Plant Industry. First stage (instar) nymphs, called crawlers (Fig. Similar treatments may be useful to control other pests on landscape plants such as azalea lace bugs and crape myrtle aphids, although timing of application(s) will vary. Males are unknown in this species. Consider replacing heavily infested landscape hollies and other host plants with non-host species of plants to eliminate the need for repeated insecticide treatments. Although hollies have historically been a good choice as landscape plant species and are well adapted to the environmental conditions in Texas, the situation has changed over recent years. Euonymus scale, on the other hand, attacks euonymus and resembles tea scale. Prior to the Florida discoveries, the California Department of Food and Agriculture had intercepted specimens from Florida. Florida Wax Scale - Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock. And, when the scale goes to crawler stage, contact insecticides such as insecticidal oil and Distance can be used. The adult female of the Florida wax scale grows to about 3 mm (1/8-inch). When infested plants are to be preserved, control should begin with pruning away and discarding heavily infested foliage. Consumer Serv., Gainesville, FL. Common Hosts: Crape myrtle, deodar cedar, elms, hollies, loblolly pine, oaks and other hardwoods and softwoods. 50 0 obj <> endobj 62 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<623BCFD9178CE4125B58F5B67FCD2AA1><576A2760A5C44EF19A4AC341D0D09DE3>]/Index[50 30]/Info 49 0 R/Length 75/Prev 436073/Root 51 0 R/Size 80/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream In recent years, infestations in the eastern half of Texas have become particularly noticeable. Co., Houston, TX. Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. 4. Sanitation and pruning will reduce initial pest density and opens the canopy for improving spray coverage.
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