The hamadryas baboon (/ˌhæməˈdraɪəs/; Papio hamadryas) is a species of baboon from the Old World monkey family.  The males limit the movements of the females, herding them with visual threats and grabbing or biting any that wander too far away. Baboons contain long and dog-like muzzles. The small species of baboons are 50 cm in height and 14 kg in weight only. Hamadryas baboons reach sexual maturity at about 4 years for females and between 5 to 7 years for males. The hamadryas is the smallest baboon species, with a body length of about 60–70 cm (24–28 inches) and weight of up to 18 kg (40 pounds). The IMR was estimated at age 5. The male hamadryas baboon is identified by its silver-white coloured mane and mantle (also known as a cape). Diet: Baboons are omnivores and eat grass, roots, tubers, seeds, nuts, fruit, insects and small animals. Hamadryas baboons utilize visual signals and gestures, vocalizations, and tactile communication. Updates? Hamadryas baboons live in a family group known as a one male unit (OMU). Gestures such as staring, smiling, and head-bobbing serve as threat displays, whereas nose-touching and lip smacking show friendly attitude. They also protect the young from predators. Bands are the next level. The female hamadryas does not have this distinguishing feature. Hamadryas Baboons live in rocky, hilly Ethiopian mountain territories. Omissions? On the average, females reached menarche at 4.3 years of age and had their first infant at the age of 6.1 years.  Two or more harems unite repeatedly to form clans. Instead of maintaining a large cohesive troop, hamadryas split during the day into groups consisting of a single male and his “harem” of up to six (or more) females.  Visual threats are usually accompanied by these aggressive fights. Dominant male baboons prevent other males from coming into close contact with their infants. As in all highly social species, communication is varied and complex. Like all baboons, hamadryas baboons are intrigued by infants and give much attention to them. Family: Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys: baboons, macaques, and vervet monkeys) Subfamily: Cercopithecinae. During the wet seasons, the baboon feeds on a variety of foods, including blossoms, seeds, grasses, wild roots, bark and leaves from acacia trees.  Males rarely leave their bands, and females are occasionally transferred or traded between bands by males.  When a new male takes over a female, she develops sexual swellings which may be an adaptation that functions to prevent the new male from killing the offspring of the previous male. Rather than trees, these primates prefer to live near high cliffs where they can gain access to acacia, opuntia cactus, and a water source. The dominant male tolerates the young and will carry and play with them.  In addition, females demonstrate definite preferences for certain males, and rival males heed these preferences. Females are brown, but males are silvery gray with an enormous cape of hair on the neck and shoulders. Aging males often lose their females to followers and soon lose weight and their hair color changes to brown like a female. From rump to head baboons measure about 28 to 30 inches, and from head to tip of tail they are about 46 to 50 inches.  During the dry season, the baboons eat leaves of the Dobera glabra and sisal leaves. They have long silvery hair on mane with a bright pink face and back. There is some geographical variation in average size.  Females do most of the parenting. Males are generally larger (between 40 and 65 pounds) than females (between 20 and 35 pounds). Each male herds his females strictly—chasing them, rounding them up, and, if necessary, biting them on the nape of the neck; he supposedly mates only with the females of his own group. Habitat. All baboons, especially the Hamadryas baboons spend more time on the ground than other monkey species. The papio genus of "savanna" baboons has five old-world baboons: Hamadryas, Anubis, Yellow, Chacma, and Guinea. They can live into their forties in captivity. Sometimes, Thoth himself appears in the form of a hamadryas (often shown carrying the moon on his head), as an alternative to his more common representation as an ibis-headed figure.  When males reach puberty, they show a playful interest in young infants.  Males sometimes raid harems for females, resulting in aggressive fights. These females, known as the "central females", stay in closer proximity to the harem male than the other females.  Within clans, males are close relatives of one another and have an age-related dominance hierarchy. The weight is born on the front extremities by the fingers (digitigrade), and is born by the hind feet across the entire sole of the foot (plantigrade). Several family groups will form a clan; clans gather to forms bands; bands come together to form troops. They nurse and groom the infant and one female in a unit may groom an infant that is not hers.  No major range-wide threats exist at present, although locally it may be at risk through loss of habitat due to major agricultural expansion and irrigation projects. , The baboon's drinking activities also depend on the season. The other males and juveniles keep a lookout around the group and are responsible for raising the alarm in case of danger. Genus: Papio. (Nowak, 1999) Communication and Perception. The Hamadryas Baboons largely rely on body language to communicate with conspecifics. Hamadryas baboons have a 15 to 24 inch (38 to 61 cm) tail. Most social interaction occurs within small groups called one-male units or harems containing one male and up to 10 females, which the males lead and guard.  Several bands may come together to form a troop, usually at sleeping cliffs. Many males succeed in taking a female from another's harem, called a "takeover". Two or more harems unite repeatedly to form clans. This would include a quick flashing of the eyelids accompanied by a yawn to show off the teeth. ... Members of the Chacma species are the largest in size forty seven inches tall and forty kilograms in weight on average.  The male may also abduct a young female by force. The Hamadryas baboon is one of four species of baboons. Hamadryas baboons have a unique social structure.  In addition, it is not uncommon for females of the same natal group to end up in the same harem. Their extremities are well-built for a lifestyle on the ground, they can run extremely fast. Zinner, D., T. Deschner. In. Females are a light, olive-brown. Schreier A, Swedell L (2009) "The Fourth Level of Social Structure in a Multi-Level Society: Ecological and Social Functions of Clans in Hamadryas Baboons". As in many species, infant baboons are taken by the males as hostages during fights. , Transformation of field and pastureland represents the main threat to the hamadryas baboon; its only natural predators are the striped hyena, spotted hyena, and a diminishing number of African leopards that can still be found in the same area of distribution. At birth the young baboon weighs 600 - 900 g (21 - 32 oz) and they are black in colour. Other males will attempt to kidnap juvenile females and thus start their own new group. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Infants are very dark brown or black in coloration and lighten after about one year. The different species have varying coat colors but have a similar build. (2000) "Sexual swellings in female hamadryas baboons after male take-overs: 'Deceptive' swellings as a possible female counter-strategy against infanticideticide". A haremoften includes a younger "follower" male that may be related to the leader.  They will kidnap the infants by luring them away from their harems and inviting them to ride on their backs. The Gelada baboon are only found in the high grassland of the central Ethiopian plateau, which is the only place they can be hunted. This group consists of a single dominant male and up to 10 females. The tribe is dominated by a few large adult males who constantly remain close to the females.  Either way, the male will mate with the female when she matures.  However, later studies show female baboons retain close associations with at least some female kin. Sigg, H, Stolba, A, Abegglen, J. For example, the Chacma Baboon can grow up to 120 cm tall and weigh 40 kg, while the Guinea Baboon is only 50 cm tall and weighs only 14 kg. Their faces range in color from red to tan to a dark brown. NOW 50% OFF! pp. Swedell L (2002) "Affiliation among females in wild hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas)". Males are incredibly protective of the females in their harem. Diet.  Females that spend most of their time farther from the harem male are called "peripheral females". The baboon has an unusual four-level social system called a multilevel society. This is more often done by "follower" males. Males are ashy gray and brown and have long silver-gray ca… The Chacma Baboon can be 47 inches and weigh 90 lb, while the biggest Guinea Baboon is 20 inches and weighs only 30 lb. The remaining males form bachelor bands. Hamadryas, (Papio hamadryas), also called sacred baboon, or Arabian baboon, large, powerful monkey of the plains and open-rock areas of the Red Sea coast, both in Africa (Eritrea, The Sudan) and on the opposite coast in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. The hamadryas baboon varies extends from the … Males will generally have a mane or ruff. Their size and weight depend on the species to which they belong. The IUCN listed this species as "least concern" in 2008. Age-related changes in body weight and dentition were found to be delayed relative to laboratory-reared baboons.  Baboons rest at the waterholes during midafternoon and also dig drinking holes only a short distance from natural waterholes. Astennu, attendant to Thoth, is represented as a hamadryas in his roles as recorder of the result of the Weighing of the Heart and as one of the four hamadryas baboons guarding the lake of fire in Duat, the ancient Egyptian underworld. There is considerable variation in size and weight depending on species. These primates are mostly found in Africa as well as in some parts of south western Arabia. The hamadryas was sacred to Thoth, the ancient Egyptian god of learning. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Some baboons are big and some are comparably small. Hapi, one of the Four Sons of Horus that guarded the organs of the deceased in ancient Egyptian religion, is also represented as hamadryas-headed; Hapi protected the lungs, hence the common sculpting of a stone or clay hamadryas head as the lid of the canopic jar that held the lungs and/or represented the protection of the lungs. During the wet seasons, the baboon do not have to go far to find pools of water.  The harem leader would retrieve the infants from their kidnappers, which is mostly an act to protect their offspring.. There are five species of old world monkeys known as baboons. Hamadryas baboons are found in Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. The 5 species of baboons are Papio ursinus (Chacma Baboon), Papio papio (Guinea Baboon), Papio hamadryas (Hamadryas Baboon), and Papio anubis (Olive Baboon), and the Papio cynocephalus (Yellow Baboon). Social structures are complex and full of intricate behaviors. In the wild, record longevity is 27 years. The Olive Baboon is one of the largest baboons, with the males being larger than the females. Baboons have a large muzzle, rather like a dog, which houses their large canine teeth. Swedell L, Schreier A (2009) "Male aggression towards females in hamadryas baboons: Conditioning, coercion, and control". Description: Hamadryas Baboons are grey-brown in colour. Hamadryas baboons are found on grassy plains and open, rocky areas of southern Arabia (Saudi Arabia and Yemen) and the northeast African countries Ethiopia and Somalia. , The Grand Babouin sacré "hamadryas" is among Rembrandt Bugatti's most celebrated sculptures. Swedell L, Tesfaye T (2003) "Infant Mortality After Takeovers in Wild Ethiopian Hamadryas Baboons". The smallest baboon, the Guinea species, weighs 31 pounds and is 20 inches in length. Characterized by their hairless, colored callosities (rump pads) and bare dog-like muzzles, baboons are large, ground dwelling primates. This kidnapping can lead to dehydration or starvation for the infant. They a… The face, rump, hands, and feet are bare, but fur covers the rest of the body. Hamadryas (hah-mah-DRY-US) baboons are big, strong monkeys. The harem males suppress aggression between the females and prevent any dominance hierarchies from arising. , The hamadryas baboon is unusual among baboon and macaque species in that its society is strictly patriarchal. Hamadryas Baboon Scientific Name Papio hamadryas hamadryas Body Length: 65–75 cm Weight: 12–21 kg Gestation: 160 days Number of young: 1 Distribution: Ethiopia, Somalia, Saudi Arabia and Yemen Habitat: Rocky desert Description Hamadryas Baboons are grey-brown in colour. Kummer, H. "A Male Dominated Society: The Hamadryas Baboon of Cone Rock, Ethiopia. Most social interaction occurs within small groups called one-male units or harems containing one male and up to 10 females, which the males lead and guard. A harem often includes a younger "follower" male that may be related to the leader. , Rowe, Noel. A predynastic precursor to Astennu was Babi, or "Bull of the Baboons", a bloodthirsty god said to eat the entrails of the unrighteous dead. The tail of both sexes is 35–61 cm long. The maximum home range size for baboons is approximately 40 square km. ", pg 376-377 of. Swedell, L.(2002):b "Ranging Behavior, Group Size and Behavioral Flexibility in Ethiopian Hamadryas Baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas)". Species: Papio hamadryas* (Linnaeus, 1758) - Hamadryas baboon * General consensus is held among experts on baboon forms, but with broad disagreement over division of species within the genus. The basis for family groups is one male with several females. Breeding Hamadryas Baboons breed through out the year and after a gestation period of 165 - 174 days, 1 infant is born. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Male Hamadryas baboons make a dog-like bark, when there are predators nearby. Females are brown, but males are silvery gray with an enormous cape of hair on the neck and shoulders. Adult males develop a shaggy, silvery-grey shoulder mane.  The less a female favors her harem males, the more likely she will be successfully taken by a rival. In: This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 10:55. 112–120 in. Babi was also said to give the righteous dead continued virility, and to use his penis as the mast of a boat to convey them to the Egyptian paradise. These regions provide habitats with the advantage for this species of fewer natural predators than central or southern Africa where other baboons reside. The male-led groups and bachelor bands come back together in the evening on cliffs, where they join together to sleep in herds numbering up to several hundred. Both genders in baboon species have ischial callosities, forming padding for long periods of sitting and playing a role during reproduction. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Swedell L, Saunders J (2006) "Infant Mortality, Paternity Certainty, and Female Reproductive Strategies in Hamadryas Baboons". The dominant male of a one-male unit does most of the mating, though other males may occasionally sneak in copulations, as well. Baboons are also native to and live in the Sarawat region of southwestern Arabia, in both Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Hamadryas Baboon Size. Stammbach, E. (1987) "Desert, forest, and mountain baboons: Multilevel societies". Hamadryas baboons live in groups averaging around 50 individuals. Two to four clans form bands of up to 400 individuals which usually travel and sleep as a group. However, males within the same clan tend to be related and respect the social bonds of their kin. Demographic and life history parameters were estimated for a band of free-ranging hamadryas baboons, observed for 5.5 years in Ethiopia. Within clans, males are close relatives of one another and have an age-related dominance hierarchy.  Females can still associate and help their extended families despite their interactions being controlled by the harem males. These sleeping sites are usually Weight: 70 - 135lbs / 32 - 61kg; Baboon Habitat and Requirements. , Apart from the striking sexual dimorphism (males are nearly twice as large as females, which is common to all baboons) this species also shows differences in coloration among adults. 9 to 31 kilograms (20 to 70 pounds) Size. During the dry seasons, they frequent up to three permanent waterholes. Baboons are intelligent and opportunistic creatures which belong to the Cercopithecinae family and papio genus. 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